ALD Coating

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is enabling the future of thin-film application.

Let's discover how.
ald coating
As components get smaller, particularly in the electronics industry, innovative coating methods are required that can deposit coatings which are homogenous, highly uniform, dense, conformal, and virtually free from defects, like pinholes.
Please welcome Atomic Lay Deposition to the stage!

What is Atomic Layer Deposition?

As the name implies, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the deposition of thin-film layers at the atomic level. ALD allows films to be built layer by layer with unparalleled uniformity at thicknesses measured in nanometers. This ability opens an exciting new world of application from microelectronics to wear resistant coatings. ALD has helped facilitate the continued miniaturization and enhancement of devices and components we depend on daily.
This video offers a super, in-depth exploration of the intricacies of ALD technology. By the way, it's really long.

Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition

Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)


Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)


Ability to coat complex 3D components or structures
ALD does not require line-of-sight like PVD
Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)


Films can be engineered to exhibit desired properties, enhancing the component to which the film is applied
Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

Scalable & Repeatable

Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)


ALD films are measured in nanometers
Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

Low Process Temperatures

Allows the use of sensitive substrates like plastics or papers
Benefits of Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)


Self-limiting surface reactions result in negligible pinhole defects and a monolayer film

Example Process using Atomic Layer Deposition

an atomic layer deposition process
Atomic Layer Deposition process steps - Step 1

First Gas, Precursor A, is Introduced

Atomic Layer Deposition process steps - Step 2

Excess Precursor A is Purged

Atomic Layer Deposition process steps - Step 3

Second Gas, Precursor B, is Introduced

Atomic Layer Deposition process steps - Step 4

Excess Precursor B is Purged

atomic layer deposition ALD

What's the Catch?

While Atomic Layer Deposition has many upsides and growing, there are a couple of caveats to be aware of.
dlc coating
One drawback is that the Atom to be deposited needs to be package in a precursor. This makes proper precursor selection essential.
pvd titanium
Another drawback and possibly the most important is the speed at which layers can be built up. A deposition speed of < 1 Angstrom / second is typical. For comparison, your hair grows at an average rate of 46 angstroms / second.





Energy Storage


Corrosion Resistant Coatings

Wear Resistant Coatings

Solar Cell Technologies

Chemical Sensors

Recyclable Packaging

The practical applications for atomic layer deposition technology are almost limitless. Here at UPT we are always pushing the boundaries of technology and have developed a new proprietary coating using a hybrid coating technology, which involves ALD.


Let's get into the weeds, so to speak. Adsorption is the mechanism used in Atomic Layer Deposition and is the interaction between an adsorbing molecule, the precursor, and a solid surface, the substrate. There are two types of adsorption, Physisorption and Chemisorption. An understanding of adsorption mechanisms is critical when developing thin films using Atomic Layer Deposition. While either may be used, Chemisorption is preferred, and you'll see why below.


  • Weak interactions, Van der Waals forces
  • Reversible
  • Interactions are NOT specific, resulting in multilayer formation.
  • Only occurs at low temperatures


  • Chemical bond formed
  • Strong Interactions
  • Irreversible
  • Interactions are specific, which makes them self-limiting, resulting in monolayer formation.
  • Can occur at all temperatures

Typical Materials deposited with ALD

Customization of the individual layers can result in some fantastic properties, unachievable through traditional production technologies.
  • Oxides
  • Nitrides
  • Flourides
  • Sulfides
  • Pure Metals
  • Polymers
  • Graded, Mixed, or Doped Layers
Atomic Layer Deposition - Typical materials that can be deposited using ALD

Other Coating Technologies